Now, a new study shows that children of single-parent homes are more than twice as likely to commit suicide. But experts have some tips on how you can help your child cope.
Higher education[ edit ] Woman and her husband, both medical students, and their triplets in the East Germany GDR in Some countries have had state policies to encourage births among educated women.
The fact that more people are going to colleges and universities, and are working to obtain more post-graduate degrees there, along with the soaring costs of education, have contributed greatly to postponing marriage in many cases, and bearing children at all, or fewer numbers of children.
And the fact that the number of women getting higher education has increased has contributed to fewer of them getting married younger, if at all.
In the US, for example, females make up more than half of all college students, which is a reversal from a few decades back. Income and fertility The growth of wealth and human development are related to sub-replacement fertility, although a sudden drop in living conditions, such as the great depressioncan also lower fertility.
Some countries, such as those that experienced violent conflicts in the s, were badly affected. Large numbers of people lost their jobs, and massive unemployment, lack of jobs outside the big cities, and economic uncertainty discourages people from having children.
In recent times, residents of urban areas tend to have fewer children than people in rural areas. Cities tend to have higher property prices, making a large family more expensive, especially in those societies where each child is now expected to have their own bedroom, rather than sharing with siblings as was the case until recently.
Rural areas also tend to be more conservative, with less contraception and abortion than urban areas. Reduction of child labour[ edit ] Child labor is common in many parts of the world Countries which have a high fertility rate are usually less developed countries, where families rely on children to help them, with labour such as agricultural work, tending to livestock, or even paid work.
In such countries child labour is quite common, with children bringing money at home, or actively supporting the family through pshysical work. By contrast, in the West, child labour is banned, and it is parents who invest very high costs into their children.
In this regard, there are major differences between European countries: Legalization and widespread acceptance of contraception in the developed world is a large factor in decreased fertility levels; however, for instance in a European context where its prevalence has always been very high in the modern era, the fertility rates do not seem to be influenced significantly by availability of contraception.
The Human Development Index HDI is a composite statistic of life expectancyeducationand per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the GDP per capita is higher.
There is a strong inverse correlation between the HDI and the fertility rate of the population: As ofthe countries with the highest fertility rate are Burundi, Mali, Somalia, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Zambia, Malawi, Angola, and Afghanistan; while most Western countries have sub-replacement fertility rates.
The inverse relationship between income and fertility has been termed a demographic-economic " paradox " by the notion that greater means would enable the production of more offspring as suggested by the influential Thomas Malthus.
Government policies[ edit ] Some governments have launched programmes to reduce fertility rates and curb population growth. Notably, China implemented a one-child policy for 35 years from to ; this was relaxed to a two-child policy in Although today Singapore has a very low fertility rate, and the government encourages parents to have more children because birth rates have fallen below the replacement rate, in the s the situation was the opposite: Ability to choose[ edit ] The total fertility rate is also influenced by the ability to choose what type of family to have, if and when to have children, and the number of children to have - free from coercion, pressure, or interference from the community, extended family, state or church.
This includes prohibition on practices such as child marriageforced marriage or bride price.
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In some cultures for instance, the payment of the bride price creates an obligation on the wife to have children, and failure to do so often results in threats and violence.
In many cultures childless women suffer discrimination, stigma, ostracism, and social isolation.The US, with among the highest rates of child poverty across the OECD, also has among the top three single-parent household poverty rates—at just under 50 percent, behind only Luxembourg and.
The Associated Press delivers in-depth coverage on today's Big Story including top stories, international, politics, lifestyle, business, entertainment, and more. For single and married women without children, the average difference in income in was $—almost inconsequential compared to the almost $19, difference between single .
to improve employment policy for single parents see At just over 30% in the mids, the high rate of depression among lone mothers is an important area for policy concern.
Although lone mothers remain at greater risk Lone mothers, work and depression. Slow Death and Overdoses Many people wonder if the use of alcohol and drugs is a way of committing suicide by "slow death." Most persons who abuse these substances are taking them chiefly as a kind of self-medication to reduce their stress.
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