Introduction In a issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, an article titled "It's Over Debbie" describes how an anonymous doctor administers a fatal dose of morphine to a woman dying of ovarian cancer Anonymous, In a issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, ten doctors associated with the nation's leading hospitals and medical schools declare their belief that "it is not immoral for a physician to assist in the rational suicide of a terminally ill person" Wanzer, et. Timothy Quill which discussed his decision to help a patient suffering from leukemia commit suicide Quill,
The first apparent usage of the term "euthanasia" belongs to the historian Suetoniuswho described how the Emperor Augustus"dying quickly and without suffering in the arms of his wife, Livia, experienced the 'euthanasia' he had wished for.
In particular, these include situations where a person kills another, painlessly, but for no reason beyond that of personal gain; or accidental deaths that are quick and painless, but not intentional.
A kills another person B for the benefit of the second person, who actually does benefit from being killed". Based on this, she offered a definition incorporating those elements, stating that euthanasia "must be defined as death that results from the intention of one person to kill another person, using the most gentle and painless means possible, that is motivated solely by the best interests of the person who dies.
Their definition specifically discounts fetuses to distinguish between abortions and euthanasia: In response, Wreen argued that euthanasia has to be voluntary, and that "involuntary euthanasia is, as such, a great wrong".
Hence, euthanasia can be voluntary only. In the definitions offered by Beauchamp and Davidson and, later, by Wreen, consent on the part of the patient was not considered as one of their criteria, although it may have been required to justify euthanasia. Voluntary euthanasia See also: Right to die Voluntary euthanasia is conducted with the consent of the patient.
Active voluntary euthanasia is legal in Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Passive voluntary euthanasia is legal throughout the US per Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health. When the patient brings about his or her own death with the assistance of a physician, the term assisted suicide is often used instead.
Assisted suicide is legal in Switzerland and the U. Non-voluntary euthanasia Non-voluntary euthanasia is conducted when the consent of the patient is unavailable. Examples include child euthanasiawhich is illegal worldwide but decriminalised under certain specific circumstances in the Netherlands under the Groningen Protocol.
Involuntary euthanasia Involuntary euthanasia is conducted against the will of the patient.
Passive and active euthanasia Voluntary, non-voluntary and involuntary types can be further divided into passive or active variants. While some authors consider these terms to be misleading and unhelpful, they are nonetheless commonly used.
In some cases, such as the administration of increasingly necessary, but toxic doses of painkillersthere is a debate whether or not to regard the practice as active or passive. Euthanasia, in the sense of the deliberate hastening of a person's death, was supported by SocratesPlato and Seneca the Elder in the ancient world, although Hippocrates appears to have spoken against the practicewriting "I will not prescribe a deadly drug to please someone, nor give advice that may cause his death" noting there is some debate in the literature about whether or not this was intended to encompass euthanasia.
In his work, Euthanasia medica, he chose this ancient Greek word and, in doing so, distinguished between euthanasia interior, the preparation of the soul for death, and euthanasia exterior, which was intended to make the end of life easier and painless, in exceptional circumstances by shortening life.
That the ancient meaning of an easy death came to the fore again in the early modern period can be seen from its definition in the 18th century Zedlers Universallexikon: According to Marx, a doctor had a moral duty to ease the suffering of death through encouragement, support and mitigation using medication.
Such an "alleviation of death" reflected the contemporary zeitgeistbut was brought into the medical canon of responsibility for the first time by Marx. Marx also stressed the distinction between the theological care of the soul of sick people from the physical care and medical treatment by doctors.
Thomas Aquinas opposed both and argued that the practice of euthanasia contradicted our natural human instincts of survival,  as did Francois Ranchin —a French physician and professor of medicine, and Michael Boudewijns —a physician and teacher.
Inthe publication of Caspar Questel's De pulvinari morientibus non-subtrahend, "On the pillow of which the dying should not be deprived"initiated debate on the topic. Questel described various customs which were employed at the time to hasten the death of the dying, including the sudden removal of a pillow, which was believed to accelerate deathand argued against their use, as doing so was "against the laws of God and Nature".
A similar use of chloroform was revealed by Joseph Bullar in A.
AGS Ethics Committee, Physician-Assisted Suicide and Voluntary Active Euthanasia. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, May , 43(5) Euthanasia in Australia - Although euthanasia is a complex and controversial subject, under certain conditions people should have the right to decide to end their own lives.
Part 1. Arguments for voluntary euthanasia Rights of individuals in a democracy. 1.
John Stuart Mill, one of the architects of democratic doctrine, advanced the principle that ‘the only purpose for which power can be rightly exercised over any member of a civilised community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others.
Is the Democratic Party the "Party of Death"? If you look at their agenda they are. IT S NOT JUST abortion-on-demand. It s euthanasia, embryo destruction, even infanticide and a potentially deadly concern with "the quality of life" of disabled people. In the case of abortion protesters having abortions, it seems like they tend to believe their abortion is a regrettable necessity, whereas the other women in the clinic are baby-murdering sluts.
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